Uganda: Objectives are to transform the Ugandan economy from a largely agricultural-based economy to a semi-industrialised one.
Most industries in Uganda use obsolete equipment which in most case is not properly maintained and others use environmentally inappropriate technologies. Due to the high costs of end-of- pipe technologies, the industrial wastes are released untreated, into the environment. By introducing resource efficient and cleaner production methods, for example, water and energy consumption per unit product will reduce the production cost of industries as well as promote sustainable waste management.
The National Development Plan objectives are to transform the Ugandan economy from a largely agricultural-based economy to a semi-industrialised one. SCP objectives of the manufacturing sector are to promote a business practice that expands all the company’s processes and decisions into the social and natural environments it operates in and affects, with the explicit objective of reducing or eliminating any negative impact, while pursuing increased technological and economic performance.
The government estimated that implementing Resources Efficiency and Cleaner Production concepts and methods would cost approximately US$ 2.6 million in capital investments, but generate around US$ 2.0 million in annual savings. Uganda is pursuing a policy of rapid industrialisation and growth during the recent years has been realised with poor resource efficiency that results in reduced productivity and environmental problems. Most industries in Uganda use obsolete equipment often not properly maintained and others use environmentally inappropriate technologies. Due to the high costs of end-of- pipe technologies, the industrial wastes in form of either solid waste, effluent or air emissions are released untreated into the environment. Solid waste is mainly from rejected or expended raw materials, solvents and packaging materials.
By introducing resource efficient and cleaner production methods, for example, water consumption in the beverage industry reduced from 3.79 hL of water/ hectolitre of product; water consumption in dairy processing in Uganda is 5-6 litres of water per litre of milk compared to 1 litre of water per a litre of milk with Cleaner Production; water consumption in sugar factories reduced by 36%. This translated into a reduction in the water expenses and also significantly reduced the amount of effluent discharged into the environment; energy consumption in fish processing was reduced from 120 KWh per ton of fish to 45 KWh per ton of fish equivalent, i.e. by 62.5%. Low energy consumption per unit of product reduces costs and also makes more energy available for use by other consumers: for example, fuel wood consumption in tea processing improved from 358 kg of made tea per cubic metre to 680 kg of made tea per cubic metre of wood consumed, reducing carbon emissions and greenhouse gas.
This translates into increased productivity and competitiveness of the company and contributes to sustainable industrialisation of Uganda. The total investment required to implement all the measures that have been identified is approximately US dollars 2 million - this would result into a total saving of approximately US Dollars 3,5 million per year. These cost savings and pollution reduction gains need to be replicated across the sector